HIST325 The Colonial Period

Bartolome de las Casas: champion of indigenous people, began as Caribbean encomendero but by 1520s and 30s as a Dominican argued for humanity of Indians, suggested use of African labor but then changed minds, suggested indigenous colonization in Venezuela, 1540s got Spain to pass law for good treatment of Indians, famous debate on morality of conquest 1550s Spain arguing Indian not justifiably enslaved bc of their inferiority. 1552 A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies published in every European language, showed Spanish to be cruel.

Colonial period 1500-1800. Colonization social, cultural, psychological. Still shapes Latin America to this day.

Colonial economics: silver mines in Potosi (Peru) and Zacateca (Mex) opened 1540s. By 1600 Potosi largest city in Ams.  Southern Mex, Central Am, Caribbean, supply network for silver mines. Royal fifth to Crown organized by viceroyalties (reps of king) in New Spain (Mex, Central Am and Carib) and Peru (for all S. Am). Then New Granada 1717 (Colombia) and Rio de la Plata 1776 (Argentina) became 3rd and 4th viceroyalties.  Still Mex (Mex City) and Peru (Lima) remain core areas of colonization.

Sugar mills (engenhos) in Brazil like towns in themselves.  Brazil can not compete with Spanish silver.  Spanish America had a dozen universities by 1600, Brazil 0.  University of Mexico 1553 a C before Harvard. 

Sor Juana brilliant but can’t get uni education because female.  Always under attack from colonial society.
Catholicism, patriarchy (honor, Malleus Malleficarum)

Urban artisans, rural haciendas

“Brazilian Las Casas” Jesuit Antonio Viera “one of the most famous intellectuals of the 1600s” defended humanity of Indigenous and Africans in Brazil and Portugal, preached “Brazil has its body in America and its soul in Angola” was of African descent through his grandmother.

Fringes different from core because no specie or sugar.  Thus workers more expensive and treated better.  More mixing.

See 76-79 for specific regions and vaqueros to buckaroos. (SW US “fringe of Mex mining zone.)

Aleijadino, a mulatto, is recognized as the greatest Latin American sculptor (Brazil).
Race mixing socially and sexually.

83 Xica de Silva (Af mom Port dad) flaunted caste system, mistress of royal diamond contractor

money whitens, gracial al sacar

By 1800 quarter of Lat Am pop mixed race.