Your answers should be based on the readings and as complete and thoughtful as possible. You are strongly encouraged to include quotations from the readings and to elaborate upon the significance of the topic at hand. Please type your answers and submit them in class.


1. How does Andrews characterize “black liberalism” in the chapter “The Politics of Freedom”?

2. Generally speaking, how did party politics and race play out differently in most of nineteenth century Spanish America versus Brazil and Cuba?

3. Who were the black officers of Buenos Aires Province? (When, where, who, for example, is the author writing about.)  Do historians acknowledge the presence of black officers in Argentina’s military during the wars of independence?  (See Andrews “The Afro-Argentine Officers of Buenos Aires Province”)

4. According to Andrews’ findings in “The Afro-Argentine Officers,” was the militia the reliable route to upward mobility for Afro-Argentines as theorized by Magnus Moriner?

5. What were cabildos and cofradias and were the differences between them?  How were they organized, what were their social and political functions and effects?  (See review of Changing History: Afro-Cuban Cabildos and Societies of Color in Nineteenth Century Cuba)

6.  According to Chasteen’s Chapter on “Post Colonial Blues” what was the “liberal disappointment” of the first half the 19th century and the rise of caudillos and the patron system?

7. What was “ultramontone conservatism” and its effects? (See Chasteen, “Progress”)

8. What did “Progress” mean in 19th century Latin America and how was it a “new hegemonic idea”? (See Chasteen, “Progress”)

9. What is the origin of the term “Latin America”? (See Chasteen, “Progress”)

10. How did liberalism triumph by the end of the 19th century in Latin America? (See Chasteen, “Progress”)