(based on Chasteen, "Neocolonialsim" and Andrews, "Whitening")

1, 2, and 3. Chasteen describes the period of Latin American history during the early part of the 20th century as dominated by "neocolonialism" and Andrews describes the same period as a time of "whitening." What do these authors mean by these terms and how are they describing interrelated phenomena?

4. What, exactly, was the "great export boom" described by Chasteen? (Who were the players, what were the products, what were its effects?)

5. Both Chasteen and Andrews describe, essentially, an enclosure movement in Latin America during this period, explain and give examples.

6. Both Chasteen and Andrews describe racial discrimination during this period, however Chasteen claims, "During these years, talented people of mixed racial heritage continued to gradually infiltrate the white middle class" and Andrews states that racial discrimination was not "applied with the iron consistency of state-imposed segregation [like] in the US." What do they mean exactly? Give examples.

7. Desribe the relationship between the ideology of positivism, the practice of authoritarian goverment, and the effect of political stability on the economy in early 20th century Latin America.

8. According to Andrews (and Chasteen), how did the black middle classes respond to ideologies of "progress" and "whitening?"

9. According to Andrews, what distinguished Cuba, Brazil, Urgugay, and Argentina from other Latin American nations during this period. (They shared interrelated demographic and political trends.)

10. According to Andrews, how did the Cuban goverment respond to black political activism in 1912, why and what were the consequences?