American Cities


500 AD Teotihuacan 6th largest city in world

1492 Tecnochtitlan and Cuzco larger than any city in Spain

1600 Potosi largest city in Americas



Caste System

Honor, Gracias al Sacar, Purity

Chasteen p. 70 Henrique Dias, slave who "attained honor" leading Brazilain forces against Dutch invasion in the 1600s

Chasteen p. 75 Antonio Vieira, the "Las Casas" of Brazil, "one of the most famous intellectuals of the 1600s."

Chasteen p. 80 Zumbi, the "Afro-Brazilian hero" of Palmares

Chasteen p. 81 Aleijadino, mulatto, today recognized as "the greatest Latin American sculptor"

Chasteen p. 83 Xica de Silver enjoys a "place of honor" at church, ladies in waiting, a park, and a lake



Landers p. 62 In Spanish Florida, "Free African American women managed plantations, operated small businesses, litigated in the courts, and bought and sold property, including slaves."

Enslaved women had the right to own property, coartacion, and papel. (See also, de la Fuente re Cuba.)

Landers p. 64 Andaina (from Baltimore, literate) v Catalina

Maria Whitten (nee Judy Kenty), vecina, sued Don Jose Sanchez

Landers p. 70 Women in Santo Domingo 1796 received pensions from husbands service as "black auxiliries"

Juana (free) inherited half of Juan Fernandez's "fortune"

Landers p. 71 Francisco Xavier Suarez left half of estate to his "Creole" family and half to his "African American" family



lawsuits, petitions, complains


In places like Central America, Chile, and Uruguay, where there was little connections to European trade and a big indigenous population, few African slaves were brought in.

In the fringes, labor was scarce and expensive, thus laborers treated well. COWBOYS & INDIANS

In the centers, mining and ancillary industries caters to Mexico and Peru.

STRIKES: El Cobre in Cuba 1677, 1784; Ecuador 1780s , 1809 Peru; Puerto Rico; Bahia 1857

UPRISINGS: Santo Domingo; Santa Marta, Colombia; Havana sacked and pillaged 1538 after French pirate attack; Honduras; Mexico; Venezuala; Colombia

FREE BLACK COMMUNITIES: Colombia, Mexico, Ecuador, Venezuala.




By 1800 three times as many Africans as Europeans had crossed the Atlantic to Americas.

By 1800 Brazil had received 2.5 million Africans, all of Spanish America 1 million.

By 1800 1/4 of Latin Americas population was mixed race.

By 1800 free people of color outnumbered slaves.

By 1800 skilled Afro-Latin Americans workers outnumbered unskilled.