Late 19th, Early 20th Century Afro-Latin America: Neocolonialism
"Abolition….is often confused with freedom." (Butler, p. 129)
Politically, ideologically slavery automatically signalled the inferior status of people of African descent.
With the political abolition of formal, institutionalized slavery, and the liberal precept that all men are citizens, race ("scientific" racial ideology) is called upon to indicate the inferior status of people of African descent.
Politically, ideologically slavery automatically signalled the superior status of people of European descent.
With the political abolition of formal, institutionalized slavery, and the liberal precept that all men are citizens, race (racial ideology) is called up to indicate the superior status of people of Euroepan descent.
Liberalism, positivism, Progress, "whitening"
How do Afro Latin Americans respond?
Integration, assimilation (black middle classes benefit from economic "progress" and some access higher education which opens doors)
Alternative Integration (parallel institutions, black press, political and social organiztions) Black Liberalism
Separatist, alternative society, institutions, etc.
cabildos, cofradias, sociedades de color, pan-African, Black (not mulatto)
1910 first black political party in western hemisphere, Partido Independiente de Color. 1912 government indiscriminately massacres black people in Oriente to shut down party.
Cabildos (which started among people of color in medieval Spain) in 19th early 20th century Cuba were based on ethnicity, they led to separatist (and syncretic) religious communities: Santeria, Lucumi, and Abakua
(1890 decree to burn documents related to slavery)
differences between Sao Paolo and Salvador
Sao Paolo, black minority, alternative integrationist, parallel society, Black (not mulatto), western hemisphere's second black political party, 1931 La Frente Negra, key issue: race
Salvador, African-descended majority, separatist, alternative community, key issue: culture. Africanity. Religion (Candomble), dance, dress, language, Carnival, Yoruba-based (even if participants not Yoruba-descended). Bahia historically tied to West Africa (Muslim revolt 1835, turn of the 20th century returns to Nigeria).